Title: An Insider’s Guide to Understanding the Second Appeal Process under Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 by SimranLaw.
Section 1: Introduction
The Indian judicial system provides multiple avenues for filing appeals to enable parties dissatisfied with a judgment to seek redress. Central to this mechanism is the Code of Civil Procedure (CPC), 1908, which sets out the procedural law related to the administration of civil proceedings in India. The procedures pertaining to appeals are crucial, and among them, the ‘Second Appeal’ process often throws up complexities. Our legal experts at SimranLaw will attempt to dissect this complex legal issue, drawing from years of experience in dealing with such cases.
Section 2: Understanding the Second Appeal under CPC, 1908
Section 100 of the CPC 1908, lays down the provisions for a Second Appeal. If a party is aggrieved by the decision upheld by the first appellate court, they can appeal to the High Court. However, unlike the first appeal, the scope of second appeal is constrained. According to the provision, a second appeal only lies from any decree passed in appeal by any court subordinate to the High Court if the case pertains to a ‘substantial question of law’.
Section 3: The Principle of Substantial Question of Law
A considerable part of the complexity surrounding the conduction of a second appeal stems from an understanding of what constitutes a ‘substantial question of law.’ In layman terms, it refers to a claim involving legal principles and statutes that requires interpretation by a higher court.
One prominent case that provides clarity on this issue is Santosh Hazari v. Purushottam Tiwari (Deceased). Here, the Supreme Court held that whether a question is substantial would depend upon the facts and circumstances of each case. Further, it clarified that it’s not necessary for the question to be general in nature or have precedent value.
Section 4: Process of Filing a Second Appeal
To lodge a second appeal, the appellant must frame precise grounds of appeal. The memo of appeal must indicate the substantial questions of law involved in the case. The High Court, upon receipt of the second appeal, can admit the same if it is satisfied that the case involves substantial questions of law.
Section 5: Case Laws and Judgments
Understanding the case law on second appeals helps to clarify its working better. In Sir Chunilal V. Mehta and Sons Ltd. v. Century Spg and Mfg Co Ltd, the Supreme Court laid down illustrative principles that would constitute a substantial question of law. These include situations where the law applied by the lower court is erroneous or where a significant legal principle is ignored.
In Hero Vinoth v. Seshammal, the Supreme Court reiterated that even while hearing a second appeal, the High Court cannot reassess the evidence, reappreciate or correct errors in findings of facts.
The second appeal process under the CPC, 1908 provides an appellant with an additional legal remedy but within strict parameters. A proper understanding of the nuances involved is crucial for those seeking to avail themselves of this provision. At SimranLaw, our team of legal experts has amassed comprehensive knowledge and experience in dealing with such complicated matters, ensuring that justice prevails.
Disclaimer: This article provides general information on the second appeal process under CPC 1908 and does not constitute legal advice.
1. Code of Civil Procedure, 1908.
2. Santosh Hazari v. Purushottam Tiwari [(2001) 3 SCC 179].
3. Sir Chunilal V. Mehta and Sons Ltd. v. Century Spg and Mfg Co Ltd [AIR 1962 SC 1314].
4. Hero Vinoth v. Seshammal [AIR 2006 SC 2234].